About Us

The Computational Biomechanics (CompBio) Group at Penn State University’s College of Engineering is focused on understanding the mechanics and physics of biological systems using computational methods. Research can be partitioned into three broad areas: 1) multiphysics, multiscale computational mechanics and methods, 2) problems at the interface of biology and multiscale mechanics, and 3) humans in extreme environments.

3 areas

News and Social Media

2 weeks ago
#Backpain?? Our new paper "A non-linear multiaxial fatigue damage model for the cervical intervertebral disc annulus" proposes a method to predict spinal disc degeneration due to #military loading scenarios
https://t.co/TS2D1HFkwq https://t.co/MA3vCxXy0D
PSUCompBio photo
1 month ago
Our latest pre-print is posted: "Computation of history-dependent mechanical damage of axonal fiber tracts in the brain: towards tracking sub-concussive and occupational damage to the brain" https://t.co/CYZpksWLbj #TBI #concussion #DTI
2 months ago
Congratulations to our latest CBG alumni: Dr. Chanyoung Lee, Jesse Gerber, P.E., and Schreyer Honors Scholars Patty De Tomas and Patrick Casey. Its been fun! Best of luck in the future! Please come back to visit! https://t.co/9IRzukITja PSUCompBio photo
3 months ago
Thanks @JHU_HEMI for hosting @machconference. There were some excellent talks and posters. Always nice to catch up with old friends and meet some new ones. https://t.co/eInYt1gQOA PSUCompBio photo
4 months ago
Our recently published paper in @PLOSONE, examined the question: “Do blast induced skull flexures result in axonal deformation?” Answer is yes, low strains (< ~5%), but high strain rates (as high as 150 - 378 s^-1). https://t.co/tdyqGLt9P3 #TBI #DTI https://t.co/vDENYxVASU PSUCompBio photo
4 months ago
Exicted to serve as a faculty mentor for the Toshiba-Westinghouse Undergraduate Fellows Program. Looking forward to working with Ouniol Aklilu from @PSUEngineering BME! https://t.co/fstsSiNFl0 PSUCompBio photo

See More Social Media & News…

Our Team

Interdisciplinary Expertise in Engineering, Computational Mechanics and Biomechanics

Reuben Kraft, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor, Head of CompBio Laboratory
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Toma Marinov, Ph.D.
Post-Doctoral Scholar
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Srikumar Sridhar
Master's Candidate, Comp. Sci.
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Tom Hannah
Ph.D. Candidate
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Ritika Menghani
Master's Candidate
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Matthew Dolack
Master's Candidate
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See Lab Alumni….

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The computer is incredibly fast, accurate, and stupid. Man is incredibly slow, inaccurate, and brilliant. The marriage of the two is a force beyond calculation.

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Model Everything

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Facilities

Top-notch instruments and devices for the design, development, integration and testing for extreme environments.


High Performance Computing
Advanced Cyberinfrastructure

We use massively parallel computing systems provided through Penn State’s Institute for Cyberscience to create predictive models.


Combined Computational & Experimental Workspaces
Blended Teams for Better Research

We share lab space with Dr. Daniel Cortes, an expert at experimental biomechanics, so collaborations with his team help us form a well-rounded view of problems.


Lab Facilities
Dry and Wet Lab Facilities

From high-strain rate testing to cellular microscopy our facilities at Penn State are world-class. We frequently use magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, nano-CT scanner, high Field MRI Facility.

All
Computing Lab
High Performance Clusters
Wet Lab
Drop Tower
Imaging

Publications

Journal Papers

++After name indicates a supervised student or postdoc

2018

    15
  • Dhobale++, A. V., Adewole, D. O., Chan, A. H. W., Marinov++, T., Serruya, M. D., Kraft, R.H. (Co-senior author) & Cullen, D.K. (Co-senior author), Assessing functional connectivity across three-dimensional tissue-engineered axonal tracts using calcium fluorescence imaging. Journal of Neural Engineering. Accepted. Link

  • 14
  • S. Motiwale++, V. Subramani++, A. Zhou, R.H. Kraft, A Non-Linear Multi-Axial Fatigue Damage Model for the Cervical Intervertebral Disc Annulus, Advances in Mechanical Engineering, Accepted.

  • 13
  • Garimella++, H. T., Kraft, R. H., & Przekwas, A. J. (2018). Do blast-induced skull flexures result in axonal deformation? PLOS One 13(3): e0190881. Link.

  • 12
  • Ranslow++, A., Fang++, Z., & Kraft, R. H. The multiaxial failure response of porcine trabecular skull bone estimated using microstructural simulations. ASME Journal of Biomechanical Engineering. DOI: 10.1115/1.4039895. Link

2017

    11
  • Garimella++, H. T. & Kraft, R. H. (2017). A new computational approach for modeling diffusion tractography in the brain. Journal of Neural Regeneration Research, 12(1). doi: 10.4103/1673-5374.198967. Link

  • 10
  • Lee++, C. X., Richtsmeier, J. T., & Kraft, R. H. (2017). A computational analysis of bone formation in the cranial vault using a coupled reaction-diffusion-strain model. Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology.  doi: 10.1142/S0219519417500737. Link.

  • 9
  • Serruya, M. D., Harris, J. P., Adewole, D. O., Struzyna, L. A., Burrell, J. C., Nemes, A., Petrov, D., Kraft, R. H., Chen, H. I., Wolf, J. A., & Cullen, D. K. (2017). Engineered axonal tracts as “living electrodes” for synaptic-based modulation of neural circuitry.  Advanced Functional Materials. doi:10.1002/adfm.201701183. Link

2016

    8
  • Garimella++, H. T., & Kraft, R. H. (2016). Modeling the mechanics of axonal fiber tracts using the embedded finite element method. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering (e02823), 1–21. DOI #: 10.1002/cnm.2796. Link

2015

    7
  • Fielding++, R. A., Przekwas, A. J., Tan, X. G., & Kraft, R. H. (2015). Development of a lower extremity model for high strain rate impact loading. International Journal of Experimental and Computational Biomechanics, 3(2), 161-186. Link

  • 6
  • Lee++, C. X., Richtsmeier, J. T., & Kraft, R. H. (2015). A Computational Analysis of Bone Formation in the Cranial Vault in the Mouse. Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology, 3(24). doi: 10.3389/fbioe.2015.00024. Link.

2014

    5
  • Swab, J. J., Tice, J., Wereszczak, A. A., & Kraft, R. H. (2014). Fracture toughness of advanced structural ceramics: Applying ASTM C1421. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, pp. 1-9. doi:10.1111/jace.13293. Link

2012

    4
  • Clayton, J. D., Kraft, R. H., & Leavy, R. B. (2012). Mesoscale modeling of nonlinear elasticity and fracture in ceramic polycrystals under dynamic shear and compression. Journal of Solids and Structures, 49(18), 6. doi:10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2012.05.035. Link

  • 3
  • Kraft, R. H., Mckee, P. J., Dagro, A. M., & Grafton, S. T. (2012). Combining the finite element method with structural connectome-based analysis for modeling neurotrauma: Connectome neurotrauma mechanics. PLoS Computational Biology, 8(8), e1002619. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371%2Fjournal.pcbi.1002619. Link

2008

    2
  • Kraft, R. H., & Molinari, J. F. (2008). A statistical investigation of the effects of grain boundary properties on transgranular fracture. Acta Materialia, 56(17), 10. doi:10.1016/j.actamat.2008.05.036. Link

  • 1
  • Kraft, R. H., Molinari, J. F., Ramesh, K. T., & Warner, D. W. (2008). Computational micromechanics of dynamic compressive loading of a brittle polycrystalline material using a distribution of grain boundary properties. The Journal of Mechanics and Physics of Solids, 56, 23. doi:10.1016/j.jmps.2008.03.009.Link

Pre-Prints

++After name indicates a supervised student or postdoc

2018

    3
  • Marinov++, T., Yuchi++, L., Adewole, D.O., Cullen, D.K., Kraft, R.H. A Computational Model of Bidirectional Axonal Growth in Micro-Tissue Engineered Neuronal Networks (micro-TENNs). bioRxiv 369843. doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/369843. Link

  • 2
  • Garimella++, H.T., Menghani++, R.R., Gerber++, J.I.,Sridhar++, S., Kraft, R.H., Embedded finite elements for modeling axonal injury. https://doi.org/10.31224/osf.io/2dx5e. Link

  • 1
  • Gerber++, J.I., Garimella++, H.T., Kraft, R.H., Computation of history-dependent mechanical damage of axonal fiber tracts in the brain: towards tracking sub-concussive and occupational damage to the brain. BioRxiv 346700; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/346700. Link

Book Chapters

++After name indicates a supervised student or postdoc

2016

    2
  • Kraft, R. H., Fielding++, R. A., Lister, K., Shirley, A., Marler, T., Merkle, A. C., Przekwas, A. J., Tan, X. G., & Zhou, X. (2016). Modeling skeletal injuries in military scenarios. Mechanobiology and mechanophysiology of military-related injuries Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Link.

2011

    1
  • Clayton, J. D., & Kraft, R. H. (2011). Mesoscale modeling of dynamic failure of ceramic polycrystals. In: Advances in Ceramic Armor VII: Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings (eds. J. J. Swab, S. Widjaja and D. Singh). Ch. 21. pp. 237-248. John Wiley & Sons. doi:10.1002/9781118095256.ch21. Link

Conference Papers

++After name indicates a supervised student or postdoc

2016

    21
  • Lee++, C., & Kraft, R. H. (2016). A coupled reaction-diffusion-strain model for bone growth in the cranial vault. Proceedings of the 2016 Summer Biomechanics, Bioengineering and Biotransport Conference (SB3C2016). Link

  • 20
  • Ranslow++, A. N., & Kraft, R. H. (2016). The development of a “fuzzy” yield envelope for trabecular porcine skull bone using numerical simulations. Proceedings of the 2016 Summer Biomechanics, Bioengineering and Biotransport Conference (SB3C2016). Link

  • 19
  • Motiwale++, S., Eppler, W., Hollingsworth, D., Hollingsworth, C., Morgenthau, J., & Kraft, R. H. (2016). Application of Neural Networks for Filtering Non-Impact Transients Recorded from Biomechanical Sensors. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Biomedical and Health Informatics. (pp. 204 – 207). DOI #: 10.1109/BHI.2016.7455870. Link

2015

    18
  • Reddy, S. N., Fielding++, R. A., Robinson++, M. J., & Kraft, R. H. (2015). A computational study of fracture in the calcaneus under variable impact conditions. Volume 3: Biomedical and Biotechnology Engineering, (pp. pp. V003T03A058; 10 pages). American Society of Mechanical Engineers Congress and Explosion. doi: 10.1115/IMECE2015-51984. Link

  • 17
  • Garimella++, H. T., Yaun++, H., Johnson, B. D., Slobounov, S., & Kraft, R. H. (2015). Anisotropic constitutive model of human brain with intravoxel heterogeneity of fiber orientation using diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI). Volume 3: Biomedical and Biotechnology Engineering, (pp. pp. V003T03A011; 9 pages). Proceedings of the 2014 American Society of Mechanical Engineers Congress and Exposition. DOI #:10.1115/IMECE2014-39107. Link

  • 16
  • Fielding++, R. A., Tan, X. G., Przekwas, A. J., Kozuch++, C. D., & Kraft, R. H. (2015). High rate impact to the human calcaneus: A micromechanical analysis. Volume 3: Biomedical and Biotechnology Engineering, (pp. V003T03A009, (8 pages)). American Society of Mechanical Engineers Congress and Explosion. doi: 10.1115/IMECE2014-38930. Link

  • 15
  • Kraft, R. H., & Garimella++, H. T. Embedded finite elements for modeling traumatic axonal injury. Proceedings of the Summer Biomechanics, Bioengineering and Biotransport Conference (SB3C 2015). American Society of Mechanical Engineers. http://2015.sb3c.org/.

2014

    14
  • Makwana++, A. R., Krishna++, A. R., Yuan++, H., Kraft, R. H., Zhou, X., Przekwas, A. J., & Whitley, P. (2014). Towards a micromechanical model of intervertebral disc degeneration under cyclic loading. (pp. pp. V003T03A012; 7 pages). American Society of Mechanical Engineers Congress and Explosion. doi: 10.1115/IMECE2014-39174. Link

  • 13
  • Lee++, C., Richtsmeier, J. T., & Kraft, R. H. (2014). A multiscale computational model for the growth of the cranial vault in craniosynostosis. (pp. V009T12A061; 6 pages). American Society of Mechanical Engineers Congress and Exposition (IMECE). doi: 10.1115/IMECE2014-38728. Link

  • 12
  • Fielding++, R. A., Kraft, R. H., Ryan, T. M., & Stecko, T. D. (2014). A micromechanics-based simulation of calcaneus fracture and fragmentation due to impact loading. 11th World Congress on Computational Mechanics (WCCM XI) 5th. European Conference on Computational Mechanics (ECCM V) 6th. European Conference on Computational Fluid Dynamics (ECFD VI). Link

2013

    11
  • Zhang, J., Merkle, A. C., Carneal, C. M., Armiger, R. S., Kraft, R. H., Ward, E. E., Ott, K. A., Wickwire, A. C., Dooley, C. J., Harrigan, T. P., & Roberts, J. C. (2013). Effects of torso-borne mass and loading severity on early response of the lumbar spine under high-rate vertical loading. 2013 International Research Council on Biomechanics of Injury (IRCOBI) Conference Proceedings. 11-13 September 2013. Gothenburg, Sweden. Link.

  • 10
  • Kraft, R. H., Dagro, A. M., McKee, P. J., Grafton, S. T., Vettel, J., McDowell, K., Vindiola, M., & Merkle, A. C. (2013). Combining the finite element method with structural network-based analysis for modeling neurotrauma. (pp. 4). 11th International Symposium, Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering. Salt Lake City, Utah. Link

2011

    9
  • Scheidler, M., Fitzpatrick, J., & Kraft, R. H. (2011). In Tom Proulx (Ed.), Optimal pulse shapes for SHPB tests on soft materials. 1, (pp. 259-268). Society for Experimental Mechanics Series, Dynamic Behavior of Materials. ISBN/ISSN #/Case #/DOI #: 2191-5644. Link

  • 8
  • Kraft, R. H., Lynch, M. L., & Vogel, E. W. (2011). Computational failure modeling of lower extremities. RTO-MP-HFM-207AC/323(HFM-207)(TP/412). NATO Human Factors and Medicine Panel. DOI #: 10.14339/RTO-MP-HFM-207-13-pdf. Link

  • 7
  • Clayton, J. D., & Kraft, R. H. (2011) . Mesoscale modeling of dynamic failure of ceramic polycrystals. Proceedings of the 35th International Conference on Advanced Ceramics and Composites.

2010

    6
  • Vettel, J. M., Bassett, D. S., Kraft, R. H., & Grafton, S. T. (2010). Physics-based models of brain structure connectivity informed by diffusion weighted imaging. 27th Army Science Conference. Link

  • 5
  • Gazonas, G. A., McCauley, J. W., Kraft, R. H., Love, B. M., Clayton, J. D., Casem, D., Dandekar, D., Rice, B., Batyrev, I., Weingarten, N. S., & Schuster, B. E. (2010). Multiscale modeling of armor ceramics: Focus on AlON. 27th Army Science Conference.

  • 4
  • Scheidler, M., & Kraft, R. H. (2010). In C. P. Hoppel (Ed.), Inertial effects in compression Hopkinson bar tests on soft materials. U.S. Army Research Laboratory, 1st Annual ARL Ballistic Technology Workshop.

  • 3
  • Kraft, R. H., Batyrev, I., Lee, S., Rollett, A. D., & Rice, B. (2010). In J. J. Swab, S. Mathur and T. Ohji (Eds.), Multiscale modeling of armor ceramics. Journal of the American Ceramics Society Meeting Proceedings., 31 . Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. DOI: 10.1002/9780470944004. Link

2003

    2
  • Wereszczak, A. A., & Kraft, R. H. (2003). In W. M. Kriven and H. T. Lin (Eds.), Flexural and torsional resonances of ceramic tiles via impulse excitation of vibration. 24(4), (pp. 207-213). 27th Annual Conference on Advanced Ceramics and Composites: B: Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/9780470294826.ch31/summary. ISBN/ISSN #/Case #/DOI #: DOI: 10.1002/9780470294826.ch31

2002

    1
  • Wereszczak, A. A., & Kraft, R. H. (2002). In H. T. Lin and M. Singh (Eds.), Instrumented Hertzian indentation of armor ceramics. 23(3), (pp. 11). 26th Annual Conference on Composites, Advanced Ceramics, Materials, and Structures: A: Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/9780470294741.ch7/summary. ISBN/ISSN #/Case #/DOI #: DOI: 10.1002/9780470294741.ch7.

Technical Reports

++After name indicates a supervised student or postdoc

2013

    9
  • Dagro, A. M., McKee, P. J., Kraft, R. H., Zhang, T. G., & Satapathy, S. S. (2013). A preliminary investigation of traumatically induced axonal injury in a three-dimensional (3-D) finite element model (FEM) of the human head during blast-loading. Army Research Laboratory Technical Report (ARL-TR-6504).  Link.

2012

    8
  • Vettel, J., Dagro, A. M., Gordon, S., Kerick, S., Kraft, R. H., Luo, S., Rawal, S., Vindiola, M., & McDowell, K. (2012). Brain structure-function couplings (FY11). Army Research Laboratory Technical Report (ARL-TR-5893). Link

2011

    7
  • Clayton, J. D., & Kraft, R. H. (2011). Mesoscale modeling of dynamic failure of ceramic polycrystals. Army Research Laboratory Reprint (ARL-RP-328). http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA551733.

  • 6
  • Gozonas, G. A., McCauley, J. W., Batyrev, I. G., Casem, D., Clayton, J. D., Dandekar, D. P., Kraft, R. H., Love, B. M., Rice, B. M., Schuster, B. E., & Weingarten, N. S. (2011). Multiscale modeling of armor ceramics: Focus on AlON. Army Research Laboratory Reprint (ARL-RP-337). Link

  • 5
  • Kraft, R. H., & Wozniak, S. L. (2011). A review of computational spinal injury biomechanics research and recommendations for future efforts. Army Research Laboratory Technical Report (ARL-TR-5673). http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA549868.

  • 4
  • Kraft, R. H., & Dagro, A. M. (2011). Design and implementation of a numerical technique to inform anisotropic hyperelastic finite element models using diffusion-weighted imaging. Army Research Laboratory Technical Report (ARL-TR-5796). Link

2010

    3
  • Vettel, J. M., Bassett, D., Kraft, R. H., & Grafton, S. (2010). Physics-based models of brain structure connectivity informed by diffusion-weighted imaging. Army Research Laboratory Technical Reprint (ARL-RP-0355). Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: U.S. Army Research Laboratory. Link

2005

    2
  • Swab, J. J., Wereszczak, A. A., Tice, J., Caspe, R., Kraft, R. H., & Adams, J. (2005). Mechanical and thermal properties of advanced ceramics for gun barrel applications. Army Research Laboratory Technical Report (ARL-TR-3417). http://oai.dtic.mil/oai/oai?verb=getRecord&metadataPrefix=html&identifier=ADA430400.

  • 1
  • Wereszczak, A. A., Swab, J. J., & Kraft, R. H. (2005). Effects of machining on the uniaxial and equibiaxial flexure strength of CAP3 AD-995 Al2O3. Army Research Laboratory Technical Report (ARL-TR-3617). http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA441313.